Those three don't fit perfectly, but Raffa basically says they add balance to the whole thing. While the rest of The Inferno is filled with souls who did things, the Vestibule/Limbo/Sixth Circle are filled with souls who didn't do things (Vestibule = Opportunists, which didn't pick sides; Limbo = Virtuous Pagans, who ignorantly failed to worship God; Sixth Circle = Heretics, who failed to believe in God when they - unlike the Pagans - had the chance).
Thank you! I thought I had that question figured out (so I didn't ask you yesterday), but when I looked back I wasn't too sure.
Even though it's not in the Giant Sheet, may I also ask you why Giancotto didn't end up in Caina like Francesca said he would?
Giant Sheet o' Questions: Compare and contrast Virgil's use and descriptions of Acheron and Charon with Dante's.
Also..... What links the Panderers, Simoniacs, and Grafters(besides Fraud)? I have an idea as to the answer to this and I think the relation is basically goes like this: The Panderers essentially pimped out their family, the Simoniacs pimped out the church, and the Grafters pimped out the government/political people. Not sure if this is correct hence why I'm asking, but I had a guess so I decided to put it out there.
Giant Sheet o' Questions: What's the story behind the scene of cannibalism we wtiness in Canto XXXII? Once again... I have my own guess and this is it: Tydeus killed Menalippus. Tydeus died due to wounds he sustained from the battle and before he died, he began to gnaw/feast on the head of Menalippus.
Cannibalism Scene: This is between Ugolino and Ruggieri. Ugolino rose to power, fell, and rose again, only to make a corrupt and short-sighted move (selling the castles) while entering into an ill-fated alliance with Archbishop Ruggieri and his ilk. (The story Dante relates now diverges from historical record, so I'm continuing with what Dante wrote instead of said record.)
When Ruggieri inevitably turns on him, Ugolino and his two young children are imprisoned and denied due process for years. Eventually, Ruggieri throws away the key to Ugolino's cell and cancels food deliveries, leaving the prisoners to starve. According to Ugolino, his young boys died first, and he wasn't able to bring himself to eat them; he died of starvation afterward. Whether the deaths were that clean ("clean" being a relative term - there's nothing clean about helplessly watching your flesh wither away while your doomed children beg you to save them) is up for debate. But Ugolino's fate is to forever ferociously consume the head of Archbishop Ruggieri, who's locked in the Antenoran ice with him.
I think the answer to the first question is that Dante gives more detail. Virgil only said that Charon is a boatman for a river named Acheron, and Dante described Charon as a bearded old man with fiery eyes. Dante also made Acheron be a border between the Vestibules and the rest of Hell.
Oh, I see. I thought that Virgil talked about some sort of whirlpool or something when he spoke of Acheron. Maybe I was spacing off a bit.... who knows. Thanks for replying!
Giant Sheet o' Questions: Why does Virgil yell at Dante while they're watching the Falsifiers in Bolgia Ten?
This will probably be the last question I ask.... I hope.
Virgil yells at Dante because he's deriving entertainment from the grotesque spectacle of the two distorted Falsifiers fighting. While this seems to contradict Virgil's "approval" of Dante's reaction to Argenti's unfortunate encounter with the other Wrathful shades, remember that Dante was just learning to denounce the sinners (rather than extend compassion) at that stage of his journey. By now, he should simply see these shades suffering terribly, solemnly/seriously acknowledge the situation (i.e., "Ah, this is appropriate; I understand how this punishment fits the crime, and that God's judgment is good), and move on. It's not appropriate for Dante to instead take perverse pleasure from the suffering, gaping at the spectacle like someone watching a summer blockbuster.
I know this one because I went to Mr. Feraco for the answer for it:
Dante is being "entertained" by the battle he witnesses in Bolgia Ten; he's watching it like he's enjoying a movie. Virgil yells at him because he is supposed to be feeling a sort of "righteous satisfaction" from others' punishments, not having fun watching others suffer.
Virgil v. Dante: It's almost always a matter of "Virgil's descriptions tended to be abstract, while Dante favors detailed, physically 'realistic' depictions." Acheron's Case A, but the same holds true for other places as well (Styx, Cocytus, etc.)
Panderers/Simoniacs/Grafters: All sell things. Panderers sell their loved ones (prostituting people), Simoniacs sell religious influence (prostituting the church), and Grafters sell political influence (prostituting the state).
Ah, that makes sense now. Thank you Asaka and Mr. Feraco for taking the time to answer my questions.
Timmy's pretty much correct. Dante obviously ascribes great power to romantic love, but we've already talked about the uneasy balance of feelings he held for Beatrice and Gemma. Dante was trying to show that love was a good thing, but that overindulgence in it could easily lead to ruination; he was just straining to make sure that our "takeaway" from that Canto wasn't, "Wow, love is terrible - better deny the importance of that emotion." (Do that, and you end up with Guido someday in the Heretics' realm.)
Sternberg's idea was the article we read on the "types" of romance we seek. He argued that the stories we read can influence and shape what one "expects" out of romantic relationships. Dante also indicates that the reason Francesca and Paolo resorted to their affair was because they read the poem Lancelot of the Lake (a poem on the affair between Queen Guinevere and Sir Lancelot).
Ahh I remember now, Sternberg wrote about how movies and stories and other media influence what we think romantic relationships should be like. Thank you!!
Yep, you're very welcome! And the Mr. Feraco said that the answer to the first question was that Dante didn't want us to forget the good side of love when looking at the bad ones - he praises love as a powerful, beautiful force, but he also warns us that too much of anything can make bad. Hope that helps,